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Since scientists claim that a photon has no mass, it must have no energy, right? To get around this little problem, scientists equated the energy of a photon to the energy required for an electron to be released from the surface of a metal http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod2.html. Only one little problem here: A photon is not an electron. An electron has completely different properties and characteristics than an imaginary photon. To solve this little problem in imagining the energy of a photon, scientists equated it to Planck's constant, which is a theoretical value of the energy it takes for an electron (not a photon) to jump from one orbit of another in atoms. http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/quantumzone/photoelectric2.html
There is one other problem with those nonsensical photons: The vanes on the Crookes' radiometer turn in the opposite direction that they would if photons were bouncing off the white side of the vanes and being absorbed by the black sides. Only an electromagnetic hypothesis -- a concept of electromagnetic waves of light makes a sensible explanation. Electromagnetic waves heat the black side of the vanes and cause the vanes to rotate as they heat the gas in the partial vacuum of the radiometer. A perfectly evacuated radiometer does not rotate. And this is why Intelligent Design Theory should be taught in school. There is no dual nature of light.
The concept of light being photons was derived from Max Plank’s Energy Constant, E = hv where h is a constant = 6.626 X 10-34 Joule seconds and v = N oscillations per second. Because v is dependent on the frequency of the oscillation, Planck's energy constant is variable, and is not a fixed quantum. This is the energy in a single oscillation of an outer electron in God’s atom. Because Planck referred to this amount of energy as “one energy quantum of light” scientists mistakenly decided that a photon is a “quantum” of energy. Planck’s constant was actually derived by measuring the total energy, St, as equal to the total energy radiating into air from 1 square centimeter of a black body = 7.31 X 105 erg/ cm2 sec. In this evaluation, the speed of light in air as 3 X 108 meters per second is used. Intelligent Design Theory shows that the speed of light in space and in a perfect vacuum is far different, and Planck’s constant is not even a constant, but depends on the medium in which the energy is emitted. The oscillation of an outer atom is far different in water, rubies, and other molecules. Nothing in Planck’s measurement of a single oscillation of an electron in an atom suggests that light is photons. The oscillation of an electron is related only to electromagnetic radiation, and everything we know and can measure and detect about light indicates that light is electromagnetic radiation.
Photons, if they existed, would have to travel at the speed of light. This means according to Einstein that photons have infinite mass. Today's scientists conveniently skirt this problem by giving photons no mass. How can something exist, if it doesn't exist? How can a radiometer rotate if the photons impinging on it have no mass? Hence, we have Einstein's concepts about the speed of light and the mass of moving objects and justification of the existence of nonexistent photons. Today's scientists have a bad habit of confusing just about everything, if anyone ever pays attention.
In the case of light being electromagnetic waves, it is possible according to Dr. Barry Setterfield's speed of light discovery, for electromagnetic waves to transfer electromagnetic waves from one molecule to another instantaneously. The slowing of the electromagnetic waves are related to the inertia required to get a molecule vibrating when it is subjected to the radiation and the number of gas atoms or molecules that the light transfers those vibrations to as it passes through a medium frpm one atom or molecule to another.
The concept of photons was derived from three misconceptions. The first was the Michelson-Morley experiment that falsely concluded that the speed of light is constant. This experiment was flawed because the receiver of the light always traveled in the same direction and with the same velocity as the emitter of the light regardless of which direction the light beam was pointed. Thus, no matter what velocity the emitter was traveling, the receiver would always both add and subtract that velocity from the calculation. Red shift of stars is a contradiction of the conclusion of the Michelson-Morley experiment.
The second misconception was that light has
discrete differences in frequencies. This was mistakenly interpreted to mean
that light must be emitted as particles. A look at the
structure of atoms
shows that the discretely different frequencies that electrons in atoms are
allowed to vibrate are a result of the region of the atom in which that electron
resides. And the third misconception is based on Max Planck's "quantum" of
energy in a single oscillation of an outer electron in God's atoms.
Electromagnetic waves bounce off the white side of the vanes, but heat the black side, warming the gas in the radiometer to act as a jet engine behind each black side of the vanes. If photons have no mass, they cannot heat the black side. If they have mass, as some scientists are now claiming in order to defend the existence of photons, Einstein told us that anything travelling with the speed of light must have infinite mass. If photons have infinite mass, the universe must be full of an infinite number of infinite mass particles, and you and I do not exist.
Copyright (C) 2007, 2011 Robert L. Laing All rights reserved
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