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48. Intelligent Design
the Niels Bohr Model of the Atom
At the risk of being labeled a crank, the following pages will show you that the solar system-like Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr model of the atom do not include a single scientific fact. What is an atom and what are the parts of an atom? Intelligent Design theory shows that nothing about the proton, neutron and electron suggests the solar system concept of the atom of Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford. Likewise, the quantum physics of Max Born, the wave mechanics of Louis De Broglie, Schrödinger, Dirac and the uncertainty principle of indeterminacy of Werner Heisenberg are all based on mathematics and speculation without any regard to the proven electronic nature of the electron, proton or neutron.
The nature of electricity was discovered by many researchers prior to 1850. It began thousands of years ago when amber rubbed with fur was found to attract other materials. Without writing an entire book on this subject, let me mention that beginning in 1600, William Gilbert experimented with various electrostatic materials and magnets, followed by Niccolo Cabeo about 1640, Isaac Newton in 1704, S. Gray (1729) and C. F. de DuFay (1733). Then C. A. Coulomb determined the inverse square law of electrical attraction and repulsion in 1785, followed by L. Galvani's experiments with frog legs. In 1800 A. Volta made the first battery and Nicholson and Carlisle used it to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. H. C. Oersted discovered in 1819 that a magnetic field surrounds a current-carrying wire. A. M. Ampere, Boit and Savart developed laws of current in one wire related to force and currents in neighboring wires in 1820. Seebeck discovered thermoelectric effects resulting from temperature differences in 1821, G. F. Ohm established the relationship between resistance, voltage and current in 1827, and in 1831 and 1832, one of the world's most famous scientists, Michael Faraday discovered induction by changing magnetic fields. Many books and papers were written about the nature of electricity, including those by J. C. Maxwell, A. A. Michelson, H. von Helmholtz and G. N. Lewis.
About 1850 is when progress really began on the existence and nature of electrons and protons, actually beginning in 1705 when sparks were generated further in rarified air than in atmospheric air. W. Watson discovered a glow in a glass tube of rarified air carrying a current in 1748, as Faraday discovered glows of a different nature in 1838. This began the discoveries of cathode rays, x-rays and radioactive rays and their characteristics, the measurement of the velocity of electrons by J. J. Thomson after discoveries by Heinrich Hertz (1883), Philipp Lenard (1892) and others. It took the work of a many great researchers, including the great scientist Ernest Rutherford, to finally determine the charge and mass of electrons and protons from that time until the 1920's. Ten thousand praises heaped upon each one of these researchers would not be enough to cover their time and effort and thought. If these discoveries had not been made before the LORD taught me about gravity and the structure of the atom and the cause of gravity, what I have put together that follows would be total nonsense. Also, the research I did on electron ballistics for an electron beam Van de Graff generator years earlier enabled the LORD to use me as His student. It turns out that the true structure of the atom by Intelligent Design makes total sense. And the unproven theoretical imaginations of strictly theoretical physicists of today are what appears to be total nonsense.
The Rutherford gold foil experiment was really an experiment done by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden in 1909 - 1911 under the direction of Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester. Alpha particles (He2) from radium were directed toward a gold sheet that had a zinc sulfide (ZnS) sheet behind it. The ZnS lit up as the particles scattered and struck the ZnS. The alpha particles were supposed to go straight through the gold, and many of them did, but some were deflected at all different angles.
It was a very good experiment, and I can only conclude that the orientation of the gold atoms caused scattering. This flawed experiment contributed to the unscientific solar system model of the Rutherford-Bohr atom. That model does not embrace a single scientific fact of what we know about protons and electrons today.
Alpha particles are actually helium, in which the two outer electrons are emitted as beta particles, leaving the helium with a positive charge of +2.When the positively charged helium approaches the protons in any of the atoms shown in my structure of the atom, you can see that they are repelled or deflected by whatever angle the protons in the atoms are directed toward happens to be physically oriented. Also, the outer electrons in the gold atoms would attract the positively charged alpha particles as they passed through, causing the rays of alpha particles to bend. The alpha particles are so massive compared to the mass of an electron that they would not attach to the outer electrons, but simply be deflected as they passed by the electrons.
So the true structure of the atom as I believe it is confirmed by the angles that were produced by the deflected alpha particles in the gold foil experiment. The odd angle of deflection or rebound would not necessarily coincide with the surface of the gold leaf, but simply the physical orientation of the protons and electrons in the gold cluster. So any conclusions drawn from the gold leaf experiment would be speculative theory, and the protons of my structure of atoms explain the deflection and rebound much better.
scientific facts about electrons, protons and neutrons that are ignored in the
solar system atom of Rutherford and Bohr are in almost every electronics and
physics textbook that is permitted to be used in our
schools. Yet they are ignored by our feeble minds. Instead we go off into an
imaginative world of quantum physics,
Big Bang, black holes, string theories,
antimatter and "other universes" to blindly ignore the truths taught in our
textbooks and to believe in evolution.
Design Theory be taught in school.
The scientific facts about electrons, protons and neutrons that are ignored in the solar system atom of Rutherford and Bohr are in almost every electronics and physics textbook that is permitted to be used in our government-controlled schools. Yet they are ignored by our feeble minds. Instead we go off into an imaginative world of quantum physics, Big Bang, black holes, string theories, antimatter and "other universes" to blindly ignore the truths taught in our textbooks and to believe in evolution. Pray that Intelligent Design Theory be taught in school.
I strongly urge you, dear reader, to click on NEXT PAGE at the top of each page of the following pages to learn the truth about protons, electrons and neutrons followed by the truth about atoms. We can only conclude that atoms are not an accident as evolutionists would have you believe; they can only be the results of Intelligent Design. It is foolishness to measure truth and error by our own meager mental capacity. The Bible says this simply, "Be still, and know that I am God (Psalm 46:10)". Then the true answers will come.
What is an atom? How many hydrogen components are there? The Niels Bohr model of the atom taught that there are three components of a hydrogen atom, the proton, neutron and electron. The proton and electron form a nucleus and electrons spin around the nucleus like a solar system. We are now going to see the true formation of hydrogen with a picture of the hydrogen atom. This model of the hydrogen atom has only two components: two protons, two electrons and no nucleus. It is nothing like the Niels Bohr model of the atom.
To this day, no one can explain what light is, and many of God's other creations, such as gravity or how two particles, the proton and electron were originally coded to combine to make the almost infinite number of animate self-replicating or inanimate inventions, all in harmony with one another. Let us consider for a moment then, the proton and electron.
Your body is made of protons and electrons. The air you breathe is made of protons and electrons. The food you eat is made of protons and electrons. Every chemical element is made of protons and electrons. If you were made of dust, as we are told in Genesis, dust is made of protons and electrons. If you are made of food instead of dust, food is made of protons and electrons.
The proton and electron are attracted to each other. One electron and one proton make a neutron. A neutron can only survive for an average of fifteen and a half minutes, our textbooks teach us. During that time, it will either fly apart, or combine with another neutron to make H2. The textbook hydrogen atom model parts are only a proton-electron neutron, the combination of one electron and one proton. Then what is an atom? The so-called proton-electron hydrogen atom model (H) does not exist for long.
H2, however, is
the stable combination of two neutrons. Therefore, what I call
atom model is the first atom. The
atom model structure and picture is the combination of two H2 atoms.
Lithium atom model
is the combination of three H2 atoms.
Beryllium atom model is the combination
of four H2 atoms,
boron element atom model is a
combination of five H2 atoms,
carbon atom model structure
and picture of six H2 atoms, nitrogen of seven, oxygen of eight,
fluorine of nine, sodium ten, magnesium eleven H2 atoms, and so on.
I built models of these chemical elements, with the proton 1836 times the size
of the electron and discus shaped, having a positive charge on only one side of
the discus, but with the electron enlarged for the purpose of the models. I
constructed these into each element up to carbon. I was surprised to discover
that the carbon atom model that I made was octahedron-shaped. This is the same shape
found in nature. Diamonds are pure carbon crystals.
Likewise, the shape of the beryllium atom is the same shape as a
crystal. Such a configuration is not possible with the Niels Bohr
solar system model of the atom or the many other models based on the Ernest
Rutherford - Niels Bohr model of the atom.
Likewise, the shape of the beryllium atom is the same shape as a beryllium crystal. Such a configuration is not possible with the Niels Bohr solar system model of the atom or the many other models based on the Ernest Rutherford - Niels Bohr model of the atom.
The proton attracts an electron to it with almost the same force that two electrons repel each other. When two electrons are 10-19 meters apart they have repulsion for one another of about nine billion tons. Likewise, when two protons are 10-19 meters apart they have repulsion for one another of almost nine billion tons. When an electron and a proton are slightly greater than 10-19 meters apart, they have an attraction of almost nine billion tons. So you can imagine the acceleration toward one another involved when the two combine to make a neutron. This is the atomic energy that scientists call fusion. Because neutrons fly apart rather than fusing together to make a single particle, it must be that closer than 10-19 meters apart, they repel each other. And the closer they get to one another, the more they repel each other. Otherwise, the attraction would become near infinite and protons and electrons would either fuse or annihilate each other. It seems to be beyond coincidence that they cannot touch. The electron is extremely light, so closer than 10-19 meters apart the electron shoots away from the proton, but then is attracted back, and again is repelled.
with an electron and proton is also called a hydrogen atom.
What the textbooks call a hydrogen atom does not
exist for long because the repulsion and
attraction between the electron and proton causes vibrations that continue. The oscillations increase until within twenty minutes,
they fly apart. When they fly apart,
they cause a chain reaction that causes nearby atoms to fly apart. This is similar to the
radioactive isotopes the atomic energy that scientists
What does atomic energy have to do with the speed of light? The answer is, "Nothing". The heat and light produced by an electron attracted to a proton or by an electron and proton flying apart is equal to the masses of the electron and proton times one-half the velocity of each particle squared, whatever those velocities are. Einstein's speed of light where energy E = mc2 where m is the mass and c is the velocity of light is pure speculation. The velocity of light introduced in E = mc2 for Einstein's energy and speed of light equation is a figment of other scientists' imagination. The true energy is the velocity of the electrons which have one mass and the velocity of the protons, which have a far different mass. We know that kinetic energy (KE) equals ½ mass times velocity squared (KE = ½ mv2) for each particle. Einstein guessed that nothing can move faster than the speed of light and that this is the velocity of particles racing away from each other; so he substituted the speed of light squared for the velocity of the particles squared. Since we have discovered that the speed of light is not constant, what relation to the velocity of the fission or fusion particles is the velocity of light? Einstein's equation makes an interesting guess of the magnitude of the energy in matter, and so has been accepted as fact by the scientific community, even if Einstein's guess is at least double or more the actual energy, assuming the material completely disintegrates, which it does not.
The so-called hydrogen atom is really an unstable neutron. You
will learn that there are not 3 components of a hydrogen atom, but two; two
protons and two electrons make up the true model of the hydrogen atom, which
then becomes the building block for a picture of a
helium atom, a 3D picture of
a lithium atom, a
boron atom, and then a
carbon atom model,
which is the same shape as a diamond. You will learn that the Ernest
The so-called hydrogen atom is really an unstable neutron.
You will learn that there are not 3 components of a hydrogen atom, but two; two protons and two electrons make up the true model of the hydrogen atom, which then becomes the building block for a picture of a helium atom, a 3D picture of a lithium atom, a beryllium atom, boron atom, and then a carbon atom model, which is the same shape as a diamond. You will learn that the Ernest Rutherford andNiels Bohr model of the atom does not include a single scientific fact. A complete understanding of electrons and protons reveals that nothing about the proton, neutron and electron suggests the solar system concept of the Rutherford - Bohr model of the atom.
Men of great intellect think that they can understand the atom, but only God can create an atom. Wouldn't it be great if you could ask The Intelligent Designer how He did it? You can ask Him, but you can only reach Him through Jesus (John 14:6). Jesus stands at the door and knocks. And if anyone opens up to Him, He will come into him and sup with him (Revelation 3:20). And Jesus will enable you to ask God how He did it.
Copyright (C) 2007 Robert L. Laing All rights reserved
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