INTELLIGENT DESIGN THEORY  SQUEEZING COMMON SENSE OUT OF  SCIENCE, CREATION, NOAH'S ARK AND JESUS CHRIST

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# 27. The Speed of Light Is Not Constant.

## The Speed of Light is slowing down and Gives a Different Time of Creation of the Earth

The speed of light constant in space is less than the speed of light in a vacuum due to dust and gas in space. The speed of light is slowing down in space, and this gives a far different time of creation. Light travels faster in space than in air, gas, water, glass, diamonds or rubies. The undeniable fact about the speed of light is that it is not constant. Scientists have measured the speed of light in space at 186,282 miles per second (a partial vacuum, we will discover) and in the earth's atmosphere a little less, in water at 140,000 miles per second, the speed of light in glass at about 125,000 miles per second, in diamonds at 77,600 miles per second, and in rubies at only 190 feet per second. They know that the speed of light is slower in air than it is in a partial vacuum; that it is slower in water than in air, and slower in glass than in water. All their other conclusions about red shift, Big Bang and the speed of light are based on space being a perfect vacuum and light having a constant speed of 186,282 miles per second in space, or 299,792,458 meters per second.

### The Speed of Light is Not Constant

In 1982, Dr. Barry Setterfield, an Australian astronomer, made an amazing discovery that he first presented at the 1983 National Creation Conference.1 Dr. Setterfield tabulated all the measurements of the speed of light since 1675. The computer-generated curve showed that the speed of light was slowing at an exponential rate. Extrapolating back to 4082 BC, the approximate time of creation of the earth, the speed of light was 107  1011 times its present velocity. Immediately, the scientific community set out to discredit Dr. Setterfield's report, only to verify that he was indeed correct to an extremely high statistical probability. No one could explain this exponential decay.

Ten years later in 1992, I realized that the Hubble space telescope and others show space filling with gas and dust. Many enormous clouds of dust and gas in space are so dense that they completely obscure the light from any stars behind them. Hubble's Bubble is a good example. This enormous cloud of gas six light-years across is in the constellation Cassiopeia. Dust and gas decrease the speed of light. This would explain Setterfield's discovery that the speed of light was much greater at the time of creation of the earth. Light waves are the result of vibrations of electrons in matter. In my opinion, light waves are propagated instantaneously in an absolute vacuum. When a light wave strikes some matter, the infinitesimal inertia of the electrons requires an infinitesimal amount of time for the electrons in the matter to vibrate at the frequency of the light wave. This results in a delay in light passing through any medium. If this is true, light from the stars would be seen on the earth the instant the stars were created because space had no gas or dust at the time of creation.

Other creation scientists have other explanations than mine of why the speed of light has slowed down, e.g. http://www.sound-doctrine.net/FAQ-UniverseBillions.html, not realizing that in the beginning there was no dust and gas in space.

I suggest that a simple experiment would be to measure the velocity of light in a container holding several atmospheres of air, and then measure it as a vacuum is gradually created in the container. I predict that its velocity will increase exponentially as the vacuum is created. In view of Dr. Setterfield's discovery, the earth is not 12  20 billion years old, but only about 6,000 years old. Confirmation of a 6000-year age of the earth was discovered by correcting errors found by Creation Science nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes.

The exponential decay of the velocity of light in space with time is given in Setterfield, Barry, 1983, The Velocity of Light and the Age of the Universe, National Creation Conference, Minneapolis  St. Paul. This graph shows the speed of light slowing down as space is filled with dust and gas.

Two laws govern the disbursement of all matter in the cosmos. One is the law of gravity and the other is the law that nature abhors a vacuum. The first law is the attraction of one atom toward another, based on the tiny imbalance of charges in all atoms. The second law is based on the repulsion of all gases toward one another because of the outer atoms are vibrating away from the atoms. This dispersion of atoms and molecules at gaseous temperatures results in a temperature in space of 2.7 degrees Kelvin.

#### Dust and Gas in Space is Increasing

In the beginning, there was no dust or gas in space. All space was a complete vacuum with nothing in it. Dust and gas in space explain both red shift and the decreasing speed of light with time. It explains why quasars have vastly different red shifts than the galaxies they are attached to, both in the same direction . . . away from us2. Evolutionists claim Markarian 205, only one of many galaxies having quasars at different "velocities", has greater red shift than the quasar NGC 4319 because it is in a "different city . . .  14 times further away." If this were true, Markarian 205 would not be seen because it would be behind the galaxy instead of in front of it, and would be completely hidden by gases from the galaxy.  Dust and gas also explain the 2.7o K temperature of space, which is dust and gas being heated by radiation from stars3. See Related Links for more information on red shift.

##### Nebulae and Comets Prove That There is Dust and Gas in Space

I believe the best proof of dust and gas in space is the Horsehead nebula in the constellation Orion, which shows an enormous cloud of dust. The dust collects in rings around planets as satellites due to gravity.  Most all pictures of comets in space prove that the comets are compressing gas in space in front op them and ionizing the gas in front, leaving a trail of ionized gas behind. Two pictures of gas in space are demonstrated by two comets in space, Hale Bopp and Hyakutake shown in the next section. From all these proofs, it should be obvious that red shift of stars is not from stars racing away from us, but is from a slowing of the speed of light as it passes through space, doubling the amount of red shift with double the distance, as scientists have measured.

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This image of the Horsehead nebula showing red shift as a slowing of the speed of light caused by dust and gas in space was taken with the NOAO Mosaic CCD camera on the National Science Foundation's 0.9-meter telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, AZ. Located in the constellation of Orion, "The Hunter", the Horsehead is a dark nebula in front of the bright [pink] emission nebula IC 434. The Horsehead Nebula is roughly 1,600 light years away.

The speed of light in space is less than the speed of light constant in a vacuum due to dust and gas in space. The speed of light is slowing down. The speed of light is greater than the speed of light in air, gas, water, glass, diamonds or rubies. Dr. Barry Setterfield proved that space was a near-perfect vacuum at the time of creation of the earth and light traveled almost instantaneously in space at the time of creation about a thousand times faster than it does today. It is possible that the light from stars arrived at the earth six thousand years ago at the time of creation instead of about 8 billion years ago due to a greater vacuum in space when the universe was created and space was empty, with no gas or dust. Note that the fraudulent Big Bang would have infinite dust and gas immediately after the Bang.

To Keep the Belief that the Speed of Light is Constant Scientists Keep Changing the Length of a Meter!

Most scientists do not believe that the speed of light is slowing down. Part of this belief is because in 1960, in order to perpetuate their lies about evolution and the Big Bang theory, the definition of the length of a meter was changed to "the meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second." Thus by holding the speed of light constant, the length of a meter is now increasing instead of the "speed of light". Since the speed of light is given in meters per second, by holding the definition of the speed of light constant, when the speed of light slows down, they can simply change the length of meter accordingly! http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/meter.html. In this article, because the speed of light cannot be measured in the short distances on earth, they assume that space is a vacuum, and still use space as their means of measurement. So as the speed of light in space declines, the length of a meter must increase accordingly.

Other creation scientists do not believe that the speed of light is slowing down because

1. They do not realize that in the beginning there was no dust and gas in space and these are increasing with time.

2. They do not realize that red shift of light from stars is caused by dust and gas in space, and not from stars racing away from the earth.

This image provided by NASA Wednesday June 29, 2011 shows the galaxy Messier 78. The two round greenish areas are actually cavities in the surrounding dark dust clouds. The extended dust is mostly dark, but the edges show up in mid-wavelength infrared light as glowing, red frames surrounding bright interiors. This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope exposes the depths of this dusty nebula with its infrared vision, showing stellar infants behind dark clouds. (AP Photo/NASA)

Dark Flow

Astronomers now believe that our universe is now sliding toward another universe (http://news.discovery.com/space/dark-flow-universe.html). As for dark flow, I only have some thoughts, and God may have other thoughts. First, anything that evolutionist scientists come up with is usually pure imagination based on their fervent desire to disprove Intelligent Design. And the videos they show as if they are real are really fabricated computer graphics. They do not see anything moving around like they show in these videos that they expound as if they were the truth. When they look at the sky, galaxies and stars are not seen moving. All they see is red shift from stars and galaxies that they think is proof of stars racing away from the earth. This means that all their conclusions are based on a false premise. False premises always result in false conclusions.

I have to conclude that they drew their conclusions about dark flow because there is more dust and gas on one side of the earth in space than on the other. This is probably because the earth is on one side of the Milky Way Galaxy. The speed of light is not constant. The speed of light is slowing down due to dust and gas in space and the exponential curve of the speed of light gives a different time of creation of the earth. The earth is only 6000 years old, as the Bible says. In the beginning space was completely empty. When there was absolutely nothing in space, the temperature of space was absolute zero. Today absolute zero temperature is unattainable. Therefore it is impossible to measure the speed of light in an absolute vacuum at absolute zero temperature today.

1. Setterfield, Barry. The Velocity of Light and the Age of the Universe. Presented at the 1983 National Creation Conference, Science at the Crossroads: Observation or Speculation? Twin Cities Creation-Science Association St. Paul, MN.

2. Arp, H. 1966. Atlas of peculiar galaxies. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

3.  Wilson, R.W., 1979. The cosmic microwave background radiation. Science 205(4409); 866-74.