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47. Intelligent Design Theory of

The True Structure of an Atom and Its Atomic Nucleus Models

What is an atom and what does it look like? You are about to learn the Intelligent Design of the true structure of an atom and its atomic nucleus. Modern man has learned that there are many short-lived particles that can come out of an atom when it is smashed. They have named neutrinos which do not  exist, photons which do not exist, beta particles which are really slow-moving (low-energy) electrons, gamma particles which are really fast-moving (high-energy or x-ray) electrons, neutrons which are really one proton and one electron, alpha particles which are really unstable neutrons, and they have named mesons, pions, kaons, muons, leptons, fermions, nucleons, hyperons, gravity particles and whatever else they have come up with since I started writing this book. All these are either unstable disintegrating pieces of protons or proton-electron combinations.


The basic parts of atom models have always been thought to be one nucleus, or center, having one or more outer electrons. I am about to show you that atoms have many centers.  Scientists say the nucleus comprises an approximately equal number of neutrons and protons. Electrons, neutrons and protons are particles of energy, which comprise elements. Of the ninety-one or so elements that are found naturally occurring on earth, at least seventy-six are today believed to be essential for life. Back in 1956, we thought that about twenty-one minerals were essential for life. So maybe in another ten years, we will realize that God has a life-giving purpose for every chemical element.


Electrons repel each other. We call this electron repulsion a negative charge. If two electrons could be made to touch, they would repel each other with about nine billion tons of force!


A proton has 1836 times the mass of an electron. Its charge is slightly less than equal to the charge of an electron, but opposite. You will learn that if its charge were equal, protons and electrons could not combine to make atoms. You will also learn the cause of gravity. We call the charge of a proton positive. Scientists believe the proton is smaller than an electron. I believe the proton has a radius about 12 times that of an electron if it has the same density.  It may well have more or less density than an electron, so it may be larger, or it may be even the same size.  We only know the mass of a proton, but not its density or its size.


The proton attracts an electron to it with almost the same force that two electrons repel each other. When the two are slightly greater than 10-19 meters apart, they have an attraction of almost nine billion tons. So you can imagine the acceleration toward one another involved when the two combine to make a neutron. This is the atomic energy that scientists call fusion. But I believe that closer than that distance, they repel each other. I believe that God made them so that for some reason, they cannot touch. The electron is extremely light, so when it gets too close it shoots away from the proton, but then is attracted back agaib, then is repelled. The repulsion and attraction continue as the oscillations increase in distance until within twenty minutes, they fly apart. When they fly apart, they cause a chain reaction that causes nearby atoms to fly apart. This is the atomic energy that scientists call fission.


Fission has nothing to do with the speed of light. E = mc2 is a figment of Einstein's followers’ imagination. But it makes an interesting guess of the magnitude of the energy in matter.


Nuclei are not made of neutrons and protons, as Niels Bohr's model of the atom and most textbooks would have you believe. Nuclei are made of multiples of two protons and two electrons, the same as the H2 atom. Natural "neutrons" do not exist in atoms. A neutron in free space is a single proton and a single electron, which will soon disintegrate with a mean-life of 932 seconds (15.5 minutes), or a maximum time of about 20 minutes. A neutron separates into an electron and a proton. Why? Because a proton and electron pair can only coexist for a short time without another proton coupled to the other side. 


I believe this is because of a strong distant attraction, but also a strong close repulsion. Imagine a proton as a soft rubber ball, the size of a grapefruit, and an electron the size of a pea. The closer these two particles become, the stronger the attraction until at 10-19 meters, they attract each other with a force of about nine billion tons. But closer, they begin to repel with just as strong a repulsion. Without another proton locked to the other side, these two particles attract and repel each other with greater and greater oscillations until they fly apart. The reason the oscillation increases is because the farther the electron oscillates away from the proton, the weaker the attraction back to the proton. But as the electron approaches the proton from a greater distance, it is accelerated more toward the proton. Then the repulsive force of the proton is greater than the repulsion of an electron attracted from a lesser distance. Each time the electron is repulsed, it is repulsed a greater distance, until the distance becomes too great for the attractive force to pull it back.


A stable proton and electron configuration can only exist for about fifteen and a half minutes on the average, unless the electron locks a proton on each side of it. Proton-electron-proton couples, which I call PeP's are the basic building blocks of the universe. To hold an electron, two protons must lock an electron between them. This stable combination can do two things. It can lock a hundred or more other PeP combinations to it, or it can attract free electrons in space or electrons in other atoms that are near it. The free electrons are either in orbit, as in magnetic atoms, or they vibrate without orbiting, as with most atoms. I will show later how free electrons of most atoms cannot orbit because of the way the other PeP's are locked together. You will soon understand why the number of free electrons in any atom is approximately equal to the number of proton-electron-proton combinations. 


The hydrogen atom is the first stable PeP combination with one electron outside, trying to get in to satisfy the two positive charges of the two protons. That electron cannot get between the two protons because the electron already between the two protons repels the electron on the outside. So the outer electron must remain outside, always trying to get between the two protons, but always repelled by the center electron. This first atomic combination is the H2 atom.


H is not an atom. H is an unstable proton and electron (what scientists call a neutron) that flies apart in an average of 932 seconds. H is a neutron and soon flies apart. So there is no such atom as H. The first atom is really H2.


Now here is why I believe that protons are larger than electrons and deform: A PeP is stable when it has its two electrons. But there is a huge exterior side to the proton. This exterior has no attraction to other electrons. So a proton either has a charge only on one side, or something must happen that shifts the charge to one side of the proton, leaving the rest of the proton to act as a charge insulator, just as the protons in many different molecules act as electrical insulators. And this, by the way, explains insulators.


The reason I think the outer electron does not orbit is that hydrogen is non-magnetic. If the outer hydrogen electron orbited around the PeP nucleus, we would detect a magnetic field. Since all free electrons affect all other free electrons, a tank of hydrogen gas would be highly magnetic, because all the electrons would be spinning in unison. Conclusion: The free electrons in H2 do not orbit the "nucleus".


Perhaps the electron does not orbit because the electron causes a distortion of the proton.The free electron vibrates in its locked position according to its temperature. The higher the temperature, the farther the outer electron vibrates from the PeP. The farther the outer electron vibrates, the more the gas atom or molecule repels its neighboring atoms or molecules.This is why heating a tank of gas increases the pressure in the tank. The vibration causes other electrons in other atoms to vibrate, resulting in conductance, heat radiation and convection. At zero degrees absolute, the outer electron does not vibrate, but can freely flow from one atom to another, which is called superconductivity. Table 1 describes the frequencies that can occur in any atom, according to increasing frequencies:



Table 1: Energy spectrum of radiation listed as the rate of vibration of peripheral atomic electrons.


   0.0 to 10 cycles per second

   Instantaneous transfer of heat or electron flow between atoms.

   Perceived sound

   10 to 20,000 cps

   Transfers at different rates through different materials.  Does not transfer through vacuum.

   radio waves

   4,000 cps through ultraviolet

   Transfers through most materials, gases or space.

   infrared heat

   106 mc/s to about 100 x 106 mc/s

   Transfers through materials and gases by conduction and convection and through a vacuum by radiation.

   infrared light

   About 100 x 106 mc/s to 420 x 106 mc/s

   Loses its ability to transfer through materials.

   visible light

   420 x 106 mc/s to 800 x 106 mc/s


May be the resonant frequency of the universe!

  Instantaneous transfer from one atom to another, regardless of distance. Is adsorbed or reflected by surfaces of materials.

   Ultraviolet light

   800 x 106 mc/s to 80 x 1012 mc/s

  Transfers through space and some rare materials.

   release of beta particles

   About 4 x 1010 mc/s to about 1013 mc/s

   Low energy electrons released from the exterior of atoms.

   Release of gamma particles

   About 1013 mc/s (soft x-rays) to 1015 mc/s (hard x-rays)

   High-energy electrons released from both exterior and interior of atoms.

   Release of alpha particles

   About 4 x 1010 mc/s to 1015 mc/s

   Two bound PeP's are released having a +2 charge. Same as a helium atom with the two external electrons removed.



Of all these frequencies, light is the most amazing. I will show that as we move from absolute zero to the frequency of light, the frequencies approach this inconceivable phenomenon, in which the frequency is in resonance with line-of–sight atoms on the surface of any matter in the universe, no matter how far away. Above this frequency, the electrons are torn from the atoms into space, and are called beta or gamma particles, depending on their energy. This leaves PeP's without their captured external electrons, and scientists call these PeP's alpha particles.


To repeat, all the chemical elements are various combinations of electrons and protons. A neutron is a proton and an electron. If a neutron is blasted out of an atom, it quickly separates into a proton and electron. The most basic nucleus of an atom is made of two protons and one electron. All other atoms are multiples of two protons and one electron. So we should not say the basic nucleus is a neutron and a proton. Let's call it what it really is, two protons and one electron, and give it a simple name, such as "PeP" (proton-electron-proton combination). I capitalized the “P’s” to show the difference in size. Every element in the universe is made of various combinations of protons and electrons. It is these two energy particles that give matter mass, gravity, light, heat, magnetism and every other aspect and characteristic. Water is one combination of two of these elements. Chlorophyll is another combination. Blood is another. A star is another combination of only two particles.


Let me summarize in a different way: Two "neutrons" make the unstable isotope tritium, which re-orients itself into a hydrogen molecule. The unstable tritium converts to a "PeP" combination with an electron attached outside. But a single hydrogen atom, a single "Pe" does not exist with stability in nature. It must have another proton, and an outer electron to be satisfied. Imagine PeP as two large positively-charged spheres with a smaller negative sphere 1/1836 the size of the two larger spheres holding the two larger spheres together like a three-sphere barbell. Since there are two positive spheres and only one negative sphere, this combination has an attraction for another electron. But the second electron cannot get into the center of the two protons, as there is already an electron there which repels it. Besides, the positive attraction of two protons is slightly less than the negative charge of two electrons, thank God. So the second electron must sit outside the center of the barbell, always trying to get in. This describes the so-called hydrogen "molecule," which scientists say are two hydrogen atoms. But you and I now know that a single "hydrogen atom" cannot exist. Scientists also know that only H2 exists in nature, except for very short periods during atomic reactions, but to discuss it might mess up their theory of the atom.


An electron on one side of the PeP combination is unbalanced. The PeP still has a weaker attraction for another PeP, at right angles to the first PeP. This weaker attraction is why hydrogen is highly reactive with other elements. So a balanced atomic structure would have two PeP's, with an electron on each side of it. Helium is this atom, which is a combination of two H2 atoms. The true structure of the atom and its atomic nucleus can only be the result of Intelligent Design.


Copyright (C) 2010 Robert Laing  All rights reserved


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