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PREFACE: Intelligent Design Theory Explains 2 Mysteries: Gravity and the Structure of the Atom
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Section 8. The Sun
45. Intelligent Design Theory Looks at
One of many highly believable theories is that the pressure at the core of the sun is enormous. "At the core of our sun, where the temperature is 15 million degrees C and the pressure is about 340 billion atmospheres, 700 million tons of hydrogen are converted to helium every second and 4 million tons turned into energy." You will find statements like this in almost every scientific article under the sun . . . or the interior of the earth. Sunspots and a simple understanding of physics gives a far different picture of nuclear reactions on the sun, earth and diamonds. Creation vs. evolution reveals that evolution is one unproven theory stacked upon another, which means that this article will create uproar among evolution-believing scientists.
The new alchemists have made some amazing discoveries of the changing characteristics of materials at high temperatures and mega bar pressures and beyond, beginning in the 1950's. These discoveries have been truly fascinating and remarkable, resulting in mass production of artificial diamonds (1). However, it appears that scientists have overlooked one important feature of gravity: it works in every direction where matter exists, not just down. Pressure inside the earth and sun may not be the mega bars (millions of atmospheres) of pressure that we anticipated.
Diamonds, quartz and other crystals are not imbedded in metal, as the diamond scientists use to produce artificial diamonds. Crystals are found in nature either as free stones, or are a matrix formed on the sides of rocks near the surface of the earth. These crystals are not surrounded by silicon, calcium, iron, magnesium or the new alchemists' silicate perovskite. They are really just surrounded by empty space and low pressure.
While the concept of enormously increasing pressure at the center of the sun or earth is commonly accepted, a little contemplation should tell us that as a particle goes deeper into the earth or the sun from its surface, there is a gravitational attraction on that particle toward the surface and in all other directions. As the particle goes deeper, the gravity of the material at the surface above it pulls opposite to the direction of the particles below it, and the net force of gravity toward the center becomes less. At the center, gravitational attraction is equal in all directions and the pressure is somewhere at or near zero. The particle or atom, if it could be at the center of the sun, would be pulled on equally in all directions, the same as black holes in space. I envision a curve of pressure decreasing as we go deeper into the sun or the earth, but it will take a good mathematician to generate the values . . . if he is not afraid to risk his reputation and career in the process.
There is another universal law of nature in effect, as discussed when we looked at the Black Hole Theory. As with all heavenly bodies, the velocity is always such that centrifugal force is exactly balanced out by gravitational force. The sun rotates; causing a centrifugal force that makes each particle in and on the sun want to travel in a straight line outward due to inertia. The result is an orbiting of the particles. The net result may be either a negative or positive force that is close to zero pressure at the center of the sun. Our brave mathematician will have to include this force in his equations.
The center of the sun is the center of gravity of the sun. In other words, the vector forces of gravity of all the particles surrounding the central particle add up to zero. This means that there is zero pressure on that particle.
It may be that no particles exist in the center of the sun, as the gravitational attraction of the particles at the surface and centrifugal force on each particle below the surface is such that it pulls the particles away from the center, resulting in a near-perfect vacuum at the core of the sun. That happens to be near-zero pressure, not 340 billion atmospheres as our schools teach. The center of the sun may be devoid of all matter, not 700 million tons of hydrogen being converted to helium per second.
It gets even better. Every housewife knows that if you boil water, the water molecules separate and become steam. This is because the hotter an atom becomes, the more the outer electrons of the atom vibrate. And electrons repel each each other with enormous force. The result is antigravity, in which atoms repel each other. There is tremendous heat in the center of the sun. Any atoms in the center will repel each other with such force they will come shooting out of the sun in the form of flares, sending neutrons to the earth with tremendous velocity and producing aurora borealis.
Is the sun really a solid mass of hot gas, or is it a thick-skinned bubble? Maybe the sunspots will tell us something. When you look into a sunspot, what do you see? You see black. You see nothing. You may be seeing into the hollow interior of the sun. NASA has measured the temperature of the center of sunspots as 1200 degrees Kelvin cooler than the surface of the sun.
Intelligent Design Theory of the Sun vs. Hurricanes
Intelligent Design theory indicates to me that sunspots are caused by hurricanes on the surface of the sun. Like all hurricanes, sunspots are the eyes of the hurricanes. Like all rotating electrical charges, solar hurricanes produce magnetic fields that are known to be produced by sunspots. These magnetic fields produce streams of alpha particles that are called neutrons in the Niels Bohr model of the atom that interact with the magnetic field of the earth to produce aurora borealis at the earth's magnetic poles. They also produce global warming during peaks in the eleven-year sunspot cycle. Rotating galaxies also have vacant eyes called supermassive black holes, the same as hurricanes. The stars revolving around these black holes in a galaxy produce enormous magnetic fields that astronomers see radiating from the centers of galaxies far out into space.
Gravity, centrifugal force and electromagnetism have a lot to do with sunspots. Sunspots do not usually occur at the sun's equator or at the poles. They usually occur midway between the polar region and the equator. Gravity and centrifugal force may be pulling the sun's bubble surface toward the equator. From what we know about magnets, the sun's magnetism is most likely also pulling the sun's surface toward the poles, leaving thin sunspots in the region between the two poles and the equator, while rotational velocity pulls the surface towards the sun's equator.
If we look at a typical galaxy, we can see these same forces acting with even more force to create rotating disks that resemble hurricanes here on earth. We see all the matter in the galaxy rotating around the center in the form of a disk. We also see a bright center around the vacant hole at the center of the galaxy as a result of magnetic and gravitational forces pulling matter to the center . . . or something like that. Someone will undoubtedly come up with a better explanation. But at least this may be a start toward the truth.
Intelligent Design Theory of How the Sun Gets Energy
How does the sun get energy? Opinions should not be stated as though they were truths. Textbooks describing the sun go on to say, "This tremendous pressure causes four protons or hydrogen nuclei to fuse together to form one alpha particle or helium nucleus. The alpha particle is about 0.7 percent less mass than the four protons. The difference in mass is expelled as energy and is carried to the surface by convection, where it is released as light and heat." Here again we find reason to question. First, four protons (four positive charges) cannot fuse together. Second, the missing mass is not energy, but the two outer electrons that were removed from the helium atom due to the vibration of the electrons because of the heat.
The hydrogen atom they are talking about contains one proton and one electron, the same as a neutron. We will discover later that modern scientists' concept of hydrogen is another unscientific hypothesis. Hydrogen "atoms" as such, do not occur in nature. But let us suppose for a moment they do. What then happens to the electron? Does it not go racing away from all other electrons, if this is the actual reaction? In the process would not the electrons stream off into space at great velocity, as we know they do, heating the atoms of the sun on the way out? Is not this the missing mass, in which the velocity of the electron heats the particles it passes through? In this case, mass would not be converted into energy as we are taught. The simple fact is that both electrons and neutrons are racing through space in such a quantity and with such velocity that is impossible for astronauts to venture far from the earth without being irradiated to death.
What is an atom? What makes up an atom? We will learn in Section 9 that four protons do not make up the nucleus of a helium atom. Protons repel each other with almost the same repulsion of electrons toward one another, about two million tons of force, if they were to touch. This would not be a conversion of hydrogen to the more stable helium, but simply protons racing away from each other, not in groups of four for any reason whatsoever, but simply in a massive stream. The energy, we would discover, would be the heat generated by free protons and free electrons recombining to form every kind of element. Again, no conversion of mass to energy; simply a generation of heat as electrons and protons either combine with enough attraction to produce about 100,000 calories per atomic event or heat produced due to collisions as particles race out through the surface of the sun.
Is energy being created from the conversion of mass to energy? Or is energy being released due to the enormous attraction of negative electrons toward positive protons and due to the enormous repulsion of one electron from another electron as is demonstrated in a Van de Graff generator and the enormous repulsion of one proton from another proton? It appears that no transfer of mass to energy may be occurring. It appears that God had planned to perpetuate the sun and keep the sun radiating heat for a very long time. It appears that this may not be an accident, but an actual plan.
With all these particles streaming away from the sun at a rate of billions of tons per whatever, why does the sun remain essentially the same and not extinguish? Let's try this for an answer: Gravity. Space is full of dust and gases as is shown by comets in space and the fact that space is not zero temperature. Gravity of the tremendous mass of the sun sucks up these atoms out of space like an enormous vacuum cleaner. The result seems to be a balance between particles emitted by the sun into space and particles gathered up by the sun into the sun's bubble-skin.
What keeps the sun hot? Again: Gravity, but maybe magnetic fields, just as the magnetic field of the earth produces global warming. Gravity pulls mass together, producing heat. We have a self-perpetuating furnace. How long can this go on? Millions of years, until space runs out of gas and dust or something in the reactions gets out of balance and we have either an exploding star or an imploding star.
If you put your finger on a microwave antenna, you will burn it. Even some distance away from the antenna, you can be fried the same is in a microwave oven. But turn off the antenna and immediately put your finger on it. You will discover that the antenna is not hot, but at room temperature. Was mass being converted to heat energy as with Albert Einstein's E = mc2? Is there less mass in the antenna now that it has emitted for a while? The answer is not at all. Going all the way back to the power supply and the fuel that supplied energy to the power supply, no mass disappeared anywhere.
Intelligent Design Theory of the Sun and Entropy
Oops! I left something out here. The only thing that disappeared was energy. This is called entropy. For every exchange of energy from one form to another, there is a disappearance of a portion of the energy, proportional to the temperature difference between the energy transmitter and the energy receiver. Entropy is a real law of nature. The energy of the universe is running down. The universe according to the law of entropy did not evolve. The universe was created with enormous energy, and is gradually settling back down to absolute zero temperature, another reason to suspect that the universe was created, and is not an accident.
Is entropy, then, proof of the Big Bang Theory? Or is the Big Bang Theory just another misconception? We will look into that later. Meanwhile, please note that I would not refer to scientific conclusions as misconceptions if they were presented as postulations instead of facts.
Intelligent Design Theory of the Sun and Life on Earth
Section 22 gives an even more Intelligent Design Theory of why stars are hot, and even sometimes heat up enough to pulsate or explode. We have already exposed several possible misconceptions and created the basis of questioning several other scientific assumptions. Are theoretical physicists prone to contradictions? When one scientist comes up with a new theory, all the other scientists rush to new theories to prove that the first scientist was absolutely correct without doubt. And both scientists become famous and get Nobel Prizes. They will broadcast this new theory on the next Science program on cable television as absolute incontrovertible fact. The students in our classrooms either gobble it up, or do not pass go.
Look at the sun. The average distance is about 149.6 million kilometers or 92.9 million miles, if it were a little larger, a little smaller, a little hotter, a little cooler, a little farther away, a little closer, a little less gravity, a little more gravity, a little more or less of one element than another, a little less radiant, a little more radiant, if its magnetic field were more or less; it were not for the rotating earth, its magnetic field and eddy current at its core at its present rate or if the earth traveled at a different velocity than it does, there would be no life on earth.
Intelligent Design Theory explains how the sun gets energy, sunspots, antigravity, hurricanes, entropy on the sun and life on earth. Having at least cast some doubt into what our public schools are teaching, Intelligent Design Theory should be taught in school. Let us now proceed with what I may have come up with on my own, but personally believe that God, precept by precept over a three-year period, gave to me. I will appreciate it if my readers test it for scientific accuracy and give me feedback, both pro and con.
1. Hazen, Robert M., 1993. THE NEW ALCHEMISTS - BREAKING THROUGH THE BARRIERS OF HIGH PRESSURE. Random House Times Books.
Copyright (C) 2007 Robert L. Laing All rights reserved
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